ffmpeg - Processing Media

Describe a couple of ffmpeg recipes

Download video from the web

HDS videos on Windows

The following snippet uses a PHP Script (executed at the command line) to download an HDS manifest and assembles the video fragments:

  • Download PHP for Windows and unpack to C:\php

  • Edit C:\php\php.ini and uncomment the extension=php_curl.dll line

  • php.exe AdobeHDS.php --manifest "http://adaptiv.wdr.de/...mp4.csmil/manifest.f4m?g=...&hdcore=3.10.0&plugin=aasp-" --delete

  • Use ffmpeg to convert FLV to MP4 (ffmpeg -i 1.flv -vcodec copy -acodec copy -map_metadata 0 1.mp4)

Download HLS videos

ffmpeg \
    -i https://...akamaihd.net/.../name/a.mp4/index.m3u8 \
    -c copy -bsf:a aac_adtstoasc "foo.mp4"

Using RTMPDump to fetch an RTMP source

rtmpdump \
    --protocol 0 \
    --host cp45414.edgefcs.net \
    -a "ondemand?auth=daEa9dhbhaJd4dmc8bicPd1cJdcdzcUcwcd-btFUIl-bWG-CqsEHnBqLEpGnxK&aifp=v001&slist=public/mps_h264_med/public/news/world/1078000/1078809_h264_800k.mp4;public/mps_h264_lo/public/news/world/1078000/1078809_h264_496k.mp4;public/mps_h264_hi/public/news/world/1078000/1078809_h264_1500k.mp4" \
    -y "mp4:public/mps_h264_lo/public/news/world/1078000/1078809_h264_496k.mp4" \
    -o someresolution.flv

ffmpeg -i someresolution.flv  -c:v copy -c:a copy someresolution.mp4

rtmpdump --protocol 0 --host cp45414.edgefcs.net \
    -a "ondemand?auth=daEa9dhbhaJd4dmc8bicPd1cJdcdzcUcwcd-btFUIl-bWG-CqsEHnBqLEpGnxK&aifp=v001&slist=public/mps_h264_hi/public/news/world/1078000/1078809_h264_1500k.mp4" \
    -y "mp4:public/mps_h264_hi/public/news/world/1078000/1078809_h264_1500k.mp4" \
    -o 1078809_h264_1500k.flv

ffmpeg -i 1078809_h264_1500k.flv  -c:v copy -c:a copy 1078809_h264_1500k.mp4

Download YouTube and create an animated GIF from sub-part


youtube-dl https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bY73vFGhSVk

# Trim time and crop sub-part and save as mp4
ffmpeg \
   -i "Zootopia Official US Sloth Trailer-bY73vFGhSVk.mp4" \
   -ss 00:01:49 -t 00:00:11.3 \
   -vf "crop=480:320:600:100" \
   -c:v libx264 \
   -c:a aac \
   -strict experimental \
   -b:a 128k \
   "laughing sloth.mp4"

# generate color palette
ffmpeg \
   -i "laughing sloth.mp4" \
   -y \
   -vf fps=10,scale=320:-1:flags=lanczos,palettegen palette.png

# Render GIF using palette
ffmpeg \
   -i "laughing sloth.mp4" \
   -i palette.png \
   -filter_complex "fps=10,scale=320:-1:flags=lanczos[x];[x][1:v]paletteuse" \

Convert videos

dir *.webm | foreach { ffmpeg -i $_.Name -ab 192k $_.Name.Replace("WEBM", "mp3").Replace("webm", "mp3") }

dir *.mkv | foreach { ffmpeg -i $_.Name -ab 192k $_.Name.Replace("mkv", "mp3") }

dir *.mkv | foreach { ffmpeg -i $_.Name -vcodec copy -acodec copy -map_metadata 0 $_.Name.Replace("mkv", "mp4") }

dir *.mkv | foreach { ffmpeg -i $_.Name -vcodec copy -ab 192k -map_metadata 0 $_.Name.Replace("mkv", "mp4") }

Figure out which DirectShow input devices I have

ffmpeg -list_devices true -f dshow -i dummy

On my work laptop, I have an integrated web cam, a built-in microphone, and an additional head set:

C:\Users\chgeuer>ffmpeg -list_devices true -f dshow -i dummy

ffmpeg version N-69972-g6c91afe Copyright (c) 2000-2015 the FFmpeg developers
[dshow @ 0000000004d2d540] DirectShow video devices (some may be both video and audio devices)
[dshow @ 0000000004d2d540]  "Integrated Camera"
[dshow @ 0000000004d2d540] DirectShow audio devices
[dshow @ 0000000004d2d540]  "Microphone (Realtek High Definition Audio)"
[dshow @ 0000000004d2d540]  "Headset Microphone (Plantronics C520-M)"

The strings "Integrated Camera", "Microphone (Realtek High Definition Audio)" and "Headset Microphone (Plantronics C520-M)" now refer to the different usable sources. In ffmpeg, the -i parameter usually refers to the input file. In our case, we can now combine video & audio sources to an input specification for ffmpeg:

  • -i video="Integrated Camera":audio="Headset Microphone (Plantronics C520-M)"

  • -i video="Integrated Camera":audio="Microphone (Realtek High Definition Audio)"

Determine the capabilities of the hardware

ffmpeg -f dshow -i video="Integrated Camera":audio="Microphone (Realtek High Definition Audio)" -list_formats all

Capture the local web cam & microphone and create a 5sec MP4 video

ffmpeg -f dshow -i video="Integrated Camera":audio="Headset Microphone (Plantronics C520-M)" -t 5 5-seconds.mp4

Stream TS (untested)

Src: https://elixirforum.com/t/live-video-cam-streaming-in-mpeg-ts-format/16957

ffmpeg -i video="Integrated Camera":audio="Headset Microphone (Plantronics C520-M)" -y -nostdin -hide_banner -loglevel 0 -f v4l2 -framerate 25 -video_size 1280x720 -input_format mjpeg -c libx264 -movflags faststart -f mpegts -

Screen capture

Screen capture filter

For capturing the local screen, you need a driver to tap into the video card. ffmpeg on Windows ships with the GDI grabber -f gdigrab filter.

It is also possible to use a DirectShow filter (-f dshow), but then you need a driver.

After installing the driver above, you will be able to use the ffmpeg input

   -i video="screen-capture-recorder":audio="virtual-audio-capturer"

Write a 10 second screen capture (at 20 fps) to local MP4 file

ffmpeg -f dshow -i video="screen-capture-recorder":audio="virtual-audio-capturer" -r 20 -t 10 screen-capture.mp4 
ffmpeg -f dshow -i video="screen-capture-recorder":audio="Headset Microphone (Plantronics C520-M)" -r 20 -t 10 screen-capture.mp4

Play back current screen

ffplay -f dshow -i video="screen-capture-recorder" -vf scale=1280:720

Capture web cam on my Lenovo

ffmpeg -list_devices true -f dshow -i dummy

ffmpeg -f dshow -i video="Integrated Camera":audio="Microphone Array (Realtek High Definition Audio)" out.mp4

Concatenate videos

Convert individually to TS

ffmpeg -i "m0-01 - A.mp4" -c copy -bsf:v h264_mp4toannexb -f mpegts "m0-01 - A.ts"
ffmpeg -i "m1-01 - B.mp4" -c copy -bsf:v h264_mp4toannexb -f mpegts "m1-01 - B.ts"


("file '" + (((dir "*.ts" | select -ExpandProperty Name) -replace "'", "\'") -join "'`nfile '") + "'") | Out-File -Encoding ascii -FilePath ts.txt
file 'm0-01 - A.ts'
file 'm1-01 - B.ts'


ffmpeg -f concat -i ts.txt -c copy -bsf:a aac_adtstoasc output.mp4
dir *.mp4 | foreach { ffmpeg -i $_.Name -c copy -bsf:v h264_mp4toannexb -f mpegts $_.Name.Replace("MP4", "ts").Replace("mp4", "ts") }

("file '" + (((dir "*.ts" | select -ExpandProperty Name) -replace "'", "\'") -join "'`nfile '") + "'") | Out-File -Encoding ascii -FilePath ts.txt

ffmpeg -f concat -safe 0 -i ts.txt -c copy -bsf:a aac_adtstoasc output.mp4

Azure Media Players

Streaming to Azure Media Services Live Streaming

After creating an Azure Media Services Live channel, we get two RTMP ingest endpoints, which differ in their TCP port number (1935 and 1936):

  • rtmp://channel1-mediaservice321.channel.mediaservices.windows.net:1936/live/deadbeef012345678890abcdefabcdef

  • rtmp://channel1-mediaservice321.channel.mediaservices.windows.net:1936/live/deadbeef012345678890abcdefabcdef

For ffmpeg to work, we need to append the channel name /channel1 to the URLs:

  • rtmp://channel1-mediaservice321.channel.mediaservices.windows.net:1936/live/deadbeef012345678890abcdefabcdef/channel1

  • rtmp://channel1-mediaservice321.channel.mediaservices.windows.net:1936/live/deadbeef012345678890abcdefabcdef/channel1

Input specs

The Azure Blog now tells us to use RTMP with H.264 video and AAC audio, a 2-second key-frame interval, and CBR (constant bit rate) encoding.

Configuring ffmpeg

Command line arguments


  • -y Overwrite output files without asking

  • -loglevel debug (or verbose, quiet, panic, fatal)


  • -f dshow use DirectShow Filter

  • -i video="Integrated Camera":audio="Microphone (Realtek High Definition Audio)" use internal web cam and microphone

Video output

  • -s 640x480 Resolution

  • -codec:v libx264 H.264 / AVC video

  • -pix_fmt yuv420p pixel format YUV420

  • -preset veryfast (ultrafast,superfast, veryfast, faster, fast, medium, slow, slower, veryslow, placebo)

  • -b:v 200k target video bit rate

  • -minrate 200k minimum video bit rate

  • -maxrate 200k maximum video bit rate

  • -r 30 frame rate

  • -keyint_min 60 minimum GOP size

  • -g 60 maximum GOP size

  • -sc_threshold 0 scene change threshold

  • -bsf:v h264_mp4toannexb bitstream filter. Use ffmpeg -bsfs for a full list

  • -profile:v main preset according to docs

  • -level 3.1 compatible level according to docs

Audio output

  • -codec:a libvo_aacenc AAC audio

  • -b:a 128k audio bit rate

  • -ar 44100 audio sampling frequency

  • -ac 2 audio channels

  • -strict experimental

overall stream

  • -bufsize 200k buffer size

  • -maxrate 200k maximim bit rate


  • -f flv rtmp://chan1-acc2.channel.mediaservices.windows.net:1936/live/deadbeef/chan1 target RTMP endpoint to push to

Ingest the RTMP stream

set DEST=rtmp://channel1-mediaservice321.channel.mediaservices.windows.net:1935/live/deadbeef012345678890abcdefabcdef/channel1
set SRC=video="Integrated Camera":audio="Headset Microphone (GN 2000 USB OC)"

ffmpeg -f dshow -i %SRC% -s 640x480  -preset veryfast -codec:v libx264 -pix_fmt yuv420p -b:v 200k -minrate 200k -maxrate 200k -bufsize 200k -r 30 -g 60 -keyint_min 60 -sc_threshold 0 -codec:a aac -b:a 48k -f flv %DEST%


ffmpeg -f dshow -i %SRC% -s 640x480  -preset veryslow -codec:v libx264 -pix_fmt yuv420p -pass 1 -b:v %VIDEOBITRATE% -minrate %VIDEOBITRATE% -maxrate %VIDEOBITRATE% -bufsize %VIDEOBITRATE% -r 30 -g 60 -keyint_min 60 -sc_threshold 0 -profile:v main -level 3.1 -codec:a aac -ar 44100 -b:a 96k -ac 2 -f flv %DEST%

set DEST=rtmp://channel1-mediaservice321.channel.mediaservices.windows.net:1935/live/deadbeef012345678890abcdefabcdef/channel1

set SRC="C:\Users\chgeuer\Cosmos Laundromat - First Cycle. Official Blender Foundation release.-Y-rmzh0PI3c.webm"

ffmpeg -re -f dshow -i %SRC% -s 640x480  -preset veryslow -codec:v libx264 -pix_fmt yuv420p -pass 1 -b:v %VIDEOBITRATE% -minrate %VIDEOBITRATE% -maxrate %VIDEOBITRATE% -bufsize %VIDEOBITRATE% -r 30 -g 60 -keyint_min 60 -sc_threshold 0 -profile:v main -level 3.1 -codec:a aac -ar 44100 -b:a 96k -ac 2 -f flv %DEST%

You can use the DASHPlayer or aka.ms/azuremediaplayer. Don't forget to append (format=mpd-time-csf) or (format=m3u8-aapl) to the streams for DASH or HLS streaming.

MPEG TS Streaming

RTP protocol (MPEG Transport Streams) encoded MPEG-2
-f mpegts udp://
-f rtp    rtp://
ffmpeg -re -i %SRC% -s 640x480  -preset veryslow -codec:v libx264 -pix_fmt yuv420p -pass 1 -b:v %VIDEOBITRATE% -minrate %VIDEOBITRATE% -maxrate %VIDEOBITRATE% -bufsize %VIDEOBITRATE% -r 30 -g 60 -keyint_min 60 -sc_threshold 0 -profile:v main -level 3.1 -codec:a aac -ar 44100 -b:a 96k -ac 2 -f rtp rtp://

Single bitrate:

ffmpeg -v verbose 
    -i MysampleVideo.mp4 -strict -2 
    -codec:a aac -b:a 128k -ar 44100 
    -codec:v libx264 -b:v 400000 -bufsize 400k -maxrate 400k -preset medium  
    -r 30 -g 60 -keyint_min 60 
    -f flv rtmp://channel001-streamingtest.channel.media.windows.net:1935/live/a9bcd589da4b424099364f7ad5bd4940/mystream1

Multi bitrate ( 3 bit rates 500, 300 and 150 Kbps)

ffmpeg -threads 15 -re -i MysampleVideo.mp4 

        -strict experimental 
        -codec:a aac -ab 128k -ac 2 -ar 44100 
        -codec:v libx264 -s 800x600 -b:v 500k -minrate 500k -maxrate 500k -bufsize 500k  
        -r 30 -g 60 -keyint_min 60 -sc_threshold 0 
        -f flv rtmp://channel001-streamingtest.channel.media.windows.net:1935/live/a9bcd589da4b424099364f7ad5bd4940/Streams_500

        -strict experimental 
        -codec:a aac -ab 128k -ac 2 -ar 44100 
        -codec:v libx264 -s 640x480 -b:v 300k -minrate 300k -maxrate 300k -bufsize 300k 
        -r 30 -g 60 -keyint_min 60 -sc_threshold 0 
        -f flv rtmp://channel001-streamingtest.channel.media.windows.net:1935/live/a9bcd589da4b424099364f7ad5bd4940/Streams_300 
        -strict experimental 
        -codec:a aac -ab 128k -ac 2 -ar 44100 
        -codec:v libx264 -s 320x240 -b:v 150k -minrate 150k -maxrate 150k -bufsize 150k  
        -r 30 -g 60 -keyint_min 60 -sc_threshold 0 
        -f flv rtmp://channel001-streamingtest.channel.media.windows.net:1935/live/a9bcd589da4b424099364f7ad5bd4940/Streams_150

Interesting FFMPEG Articles

Using FFMPEG to convert audio files

ffmpeg -i infile.flac outfile.wav

REM http://etree.org/shnutils/shntool/
shntool.exe split -f infile.cue -t %n-%t -m /- outfile.wav

dir *.wav | foreach { ffmpeg -i $_.Name -ab 320k $_.Name.Replace("wav", "mp3") }

REM Convert FLAC to MP3 VBR
dir *.flac | foreach { ffmpeg -i $_.Name -qscale:a 1 $_.Name.Replace("flac", "mp3") }

REM Convert FLAC to MP3 320k
dir *.flac | foreach { ffmpeg -i $_.Name -ab 320k $_.Name.Replace("flac", "mp3") }

REM Create M4B from MP3 collection
ffmpeg -i "concat:01.mp3|02.mp3" -c:a libvo_aacenc -vn out.m4a
ren out.m4a out.m4b

REM Convert mp3 to m4a
dir *.mp3 | foreach { ffmpeg -i $_.Name -c:a libvo_aacenc -vn $_.Name.Replace("mp3", "m4a") }

Convert a bunch of MP3 files to an iPod audio book

# Convert a bunch of MP3 files to an iPod audio book

$folder = "C:\Users\Public\Music\Star Wars Episode 1 - Die dunkle Bedrohung"

Function concatenate($lines) {
    $sb = New-Object -TypeName "System.Text.StringBuilder";
    for ($i=0; $i -le $lines.Length; $i++) {
        if ($i -le ($lines.Length - 2)) {
    return $sb.ToString();
Set-Location $folder
$filename = (Get-Item $folder).Name
$inputfiles = Get-ChildItem -Filter *.mp3 | Sort-Object -Property Name
$concatenation = concatenate($inputfiles)

# ffmpeg -i "concat:01.mp3|02.mp3" -c:a libvo_aacenc -vn 1.m4a
ffmpeg -i $concatenation -c:a libvo_aacenc -vn "$filename.m4a"
# Rename-Item -Path "$filename.m4a" -NewName "$filename.m4b"

# compare two videos @see http://ianfeather.co.uk/compare-two-webpagetest-videos-using-ffmpeg/
ffmpeg -i before.mp4 -i after.mp4 -filter_complex "[0:v:0]pad=iw*2:ih[bg]; [bg][1:v:0]overlay=w" output.mp4

Using FFMPEG to create VOD files

SET FFMPEG="c:\program files\ffmpeg\bin\ffmpeg.exe"
SET RESOLUTION=-s "960x540"

REM http://www.idude.net/index.php/how-to-watermark-a-video-using-ffmpeg
SET WATERMARK=   -filter_complex "overlay=main_w-overlay_w-10:main_h-overlay_h-10"
SET WATERMARK=   -filter_complex "overlay=(main_w+overlay_w)/2:(main_h+overlay_h)/2"
SET WATERMARK=   -vf "movie=logo2.png [watermark]; [in][watermark] overlay=main_w-overlay_w-10:main_h-overlay_h-10 [out]"

SET CODEC_MP4=   -vcodec libx264   -pix_fmt yuv420p                     %WATERMARK% %GOPSIZE% %VIDEOBITRATE%
SET CODEC_WEBM=  -vcodec libvpx    -acodec libvorbis -ab 160000 -f webm %WATERMARK% %GOPSIZE% %VIDEOBITRATE%
SET CODEC_OGV=   -vcodec libtheora -acodec libvorbis -ab 160000         %WATERMARK% %GOPSIZE% %VIDEOBITRATE%
SET CODEC_POSTER= -ss 00:02 -vframes 1 -r 1              -f image2        %WATERMARK% 

%FFMPEG% -i %1 %CODEC_MP4%    %RESOLUTION% "%~n1.mp4"
%FFMPEG% -i %1 %CODEC_WEBM%   %RESOLUTION% "%~n1.webm"
%FFMPEG% -i %1 %CODEC_OGV%    %RESOLUTION% "%~n1.ogv"

REM http://stackoverflow.com/questions/7333232/concatenate-two-mp4-files-using-ffmpeg
REM file '1.mp4'
REM file '2.mp4'
REM %FFMPEG% -f concat -i mylist.txt -c copy output

REM Remux MOV to MP4
ffmpeg -i input.mov -vcodec copy -acodec libvo_aacenc -map_metadata 0 result.mp4

dir *.MOV | foreach { ffmpeg -i $_.Name -vcodec copy -acodec libvo_aacenc $_.Name.Replace("MOV", "mp4") }

REM Remux MKV to MP4
ffmpeg -i a.mkv -vcodec copy -ab 128k -acodec libvo_aacenc -map_metadata 0 a.mp4
ffmpeg -i a.mkv -vcodec copy -acodec copy                  -map_metadata 0 a.mp4

Convert FLV (Flash Video) into real MP4

Files are FLVs, but named MP4. Make them real MP4. The -map_metadata 0 ensures that metadata like date etc flows over to the new file.

dir *.mp4 | foreach { Rename-Item $_.Name  $_.Name.Replace("MP4", "flv").Replace("mp4", "flv") }
dir *.flv | foreach { ffmpeg -i $_.Name -vcodec copy -acodec copy         -map_metadata 0 $_.Name.Replace('FLV', 'mp4').Replace('flv', 'mp4') }
dir *.MOV | foreach { ffmpeg -i $_.Name -vcodec copy -acodec libvo_aacenc -map_metadata 0 $_.Name.Replace('MOV', 'mp4').Replace('mov', 'mp4')  }
powershell -Command "dir *.MOV | foreach { ffmpeg -i $_.Name -vcodec copy -acodec libvo_aacenc -map_metadata 0 $_.Name.Replace('MOV', 'mp4').Replace('mov', 'mp4') }"
powershell -Command "dir *.AVI | foreach { ffmpeg -i $_.Name -map_metadata 0 $_.Name.Replace('AVI', 'mp4').Replace('avi', 'mp4') }"

Concatenate video files

In order to concatenate MP4 files, each file must be converted into a Transport Stream (.ts), i.e. without a MOOV atom, and then concatenated and re-written into a proper .mp4 file (with MOOV atom):

dir *.mp4 | foreach { ffmpeg -i $_.Name -c copy -bsf:v h264_mp4toannexb -f mpegts $_.Name.Replace("MP4", "ts").Replace("mp4", "ts") }

ffmpeg -i "concat:intermediate1.ts|intermediate2.ts" -c copy -bsf:a aac_adtstoasc output.mp4

Alternatively, you can list all input files in a text file:

$ cat m.txt
file 'm1-01 - Introduction - Introduction.ts'
file 'm1-02 - Introduction - Tools.ts'

$ ffmpeg -f concat -i list.txt -c copy -bsf:a aac_adtstoasc output.mp4

Create MP4 from single images

ffmpeg -start_number 3407 -i img_%4d.jpg -c:v libx264 -s "1404x936" out.mp4
ffmpeg -i "1.mkv" -vcodec h264 -acodec libvo_aacenc "1.mp4"
ffmpeg -i "1.mkv" -vcodec copy -acodec libvo_aacenc "1.mp4"

Render Game Frame previews from a series of PNGs

Download art from the Game Frame Art Forum

ffmpeg -start_number 0 -i %d.bmp -c:v libx264 -s "256x256" -sws_flags neighbor tetris.mp4

ffmpeg -start_number 0 -i %d.bmp -s "256x256" -sws_flags neighbor tetris.gif

Repair MP4


Generate HLS

ffmpeg -y -framerate 24 -i 720/sintel_trailer_2k_%4d.png -i sintel_trailer-audio.flac -c:a aac -strict experimental -ac 2 -b:a 64k -ar 44100 -c:v libx264 -pix_fmt yuv420p -profile:v baseline -level 1.3 -maxrate 192K -bufsize 1M -crf 18 -r 10 -g 30 -f hls -hls_time 9 -hls_list_size 0 -s 320x180 ts/320x180.m3u8
ffmpeg -y -framerate 24 -i 720/sintel_trailer_2k_%4d.png -i sintel_trailer-audio.flac -c:a aac -strict experimental -ac 2 -b:a 64k -ar 44100 -c:v libx264 -pix_fmt yuv420p -profile:v baseline -level 2.1 -maxrate 500K -bufsize 2M -crf 18 -r 10 -g 30  -f hls -hls_time 9 -hls_list_size 0 -s 480x270 ts/480x270.m3u8
ffmpeg -y -framerate 24 -i 720/sintel_trailer_2k_%4d.png -i sintel_trailer-audio.flac -c:a aac -strict experimental -ac 2 -b:a 96k -ar 44100 -c:v libx264 -pix_fmt yuv420p -profile:v baseline -level 3.1 -maxrate 1M -bufsize 3M -crf 18 -r 24 -g 72 -f hls -hls_time 9 -hls_list_size 0 -s 640x360 ts/640x360.m3u8
ffmpeg -y -framerate 24 -i 720/sintel_trailer_2k_%4d.png -i sintel_trailer-audio.flac -c:a aac -strict experimental -ac 2 -b:a 96k -ar 44100 -c:v libx264 -pix_fmt yuv420p -profile:v main -level 3.2 -maxrate 2M -bufsize 6M -crf 18 -r 24 -g 72 -f hls -hls_time 9 -hls_list_size 0 -s 1280x720 ts/1280x720.m3u8

@echo off

REM Line 1 sets the universal encoding parameters for all video files including the recommended 2-second GOP size.
REM Lines 2 – 5 set the encoding parameters and identifies the four video files. You can add any encoding parameter to any line so long as you designate which file it is using the v:# syntax shown. I listed the 540p file first to loosely comply with Apple’s recommendation of starting with a 2 Mbps file. You can add or subtract files from the ladder so long as you adjust the mappings on lines 7 and 8.
REM Line 6 produces the audio file.
REM Line 7 maps the single input video file to all video files in the encoding ladder and maps the single audio file to the audio output. Note that there are four -map 0:v switches, one for each video file. If you add or subtract video files you’d have to adjust this line accordingly.
REM Line 8 chooses the HLS format and then maps the individual video files to the single audio file. Again, you need a mapping statement for each video file in the encoding ladder.
REM This is what it looks like in the master manifest file. You see the two video files shown both play the group_audio file specified in line 8.
REM Line 9 sets normal HLS options like producing a single file rather than multiple segments (-hls_flags single_file), producing a fragmented MP4 file rather than an MPEG-2 transport stream (-hls_segment_type fmp4), including all segments in each manifest file (-hls_list_size 0), choosing six-second segments (-hls_time 6) and then naming the master and media manifest files.

ffmpeg.exe ^
    -threads 0 -i TOS_1080p.mov -r 24 -g 48 -keyint_min 48 -sc_threshold 0 -c:v libx264^
    -s:v:0 960x540 -b:v:0 2400k -maxrate:v:0 2640k -bufsize:v:0 2400k^
    -s:v:1 1920x1080 -b:v:1 5200k -maxrate:v:1 5720k -bufsize:v:1 5200k^
    -s:v:2 1280x720 -b:v:2 3100k -maxrate:v:2 3410k -bufsize:v:2 3100k^
    -s:v:3 640x360 -b:v:3 1200k -maxrate:v:3 1320k -bufsize:v:3 1200k^
    -b:a 128k -ar 44100 -ac 2^
    -map 0:v -map 0:v -map 0:v -map 0:v -map 0:a^
    -f hls -var_stream_map "v:0,agroup:audio v:1,agroup:audio v:2,agroup:audio v:3,agroup:audio a:0,agroup:audio"^
    -hls_flags single_file -hls_segment_type fmp4 -hls_list_size 0 -hls_time 6  -master_pl_name master.m3u8 -y TOS%v.m3u8

2-second TS


ffmpeg \
    -threads 0 \
    -i input.mp4 \
    -r 24 -g 48 -keyint_min 48 -sc_threshold 0 -c:v libx264 \
    -s:v:0  640x360  -b:v:0 1200k -maxrate:v:0 1320k -bufsize:v:0 1200k \
    -s:v:1  960x540  -b:v:1 2400k -maxrate:v:1 2640k -bufsize:v:1 2400k \
    -s:v:2 1280x720  -b:v:2 3100k -maxrate:v:2 3410k -bufsize:v:2 3100k \
    -s:v:3 1920x1080 -b:v:3 5200k -maxrate:v:3 5720k -bufsize:v:3 5200k \
    -b:a 128k -ar 44100 -ac 2 \
    -map 0:v -map 0:v -map 0:v -map 0:v -map 0:a \
    -f hls -var_stream_map "v:0,agroup:audio v:1,agroup:audio v:2,agroup:audio v:3,agroup:audio a:0,agroup:audio" \
    -hls_segment_type mpegts \
    -hls_list_size 0 \
    -hls_playlist_type vod \
    -hls_time 2 \
    -hls_allow_cache 1 \
    -hls_segment_filename vid-%%v-%%03d.ts \
    -master_pl_name master.m3u8 \
    -y sub-%%v.m3u8

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